Statistical sources and analysis

1.1 Existing statistics

At the EU level, the best source of comparable statistics (which are used also by other international organizations such as OECD and UNECE1) are those found in the EUROSTAT web-page and its publications2. EUROSTAT publishes short papers analysing the data in its Statistics in Focus series which have been the base for the analysis contained in this paper. We have also used, inasmuch as possible, additional national data that could elucidate further the differences between the countries in the study, in particular to highlight the differences and similarities among countries in both context and culture as they affect women’s opportunities or obstacles to use ICT or enter ICT related careers.

In the following box a list of the indicators available in the EUROSTAT database is shown.

Box 1, List of indicators on human resources in science and technology by EUROSTAT

  • Human Resources in Science and Technology (HRST) and sub-groups of HRST, by gender and age group
  • HRST and sub-groups of HRST by country of citizenship
  • Educational attainment of 25-64 years old by country of citizenship
  • Educational attainment, by gender and age group
  • HRSTE (HRST by education), by field of study, gender and age group
  • HRSTE (HRST by education), employed, by field of study, occupation and gender
  • HRSTE (HRST by education), employed, by field of study, sector of activity and gender
  • HRST and sub-groups of HRST, employed, by sector of activity and age group
  • HRST and sub-groups of HRST, employed, by sector of activity and gender
  • Educational attainment of internationally mobile 25-64 years old, by world part of residence one year prior to census
  • HRSTE (HRST by education), unemployed, by field of study, gender and age group
  • Share of female researchers by sectors of performance (employment)
  • Annual data on graduation from tertiary education according to ISCED76
  • Annual data graduation from tertiary education according to ISCED97
  • Annual data on HRST and sub-groups of HRST at the national level, by gender
  • Annual data on employed HRST at the national level, by sector of activity
  • Annual data on employed HRST at the national level, by selected sector of activity and sex
  • Annual data on unemployed HRST at the national level, by age
  • Annual data on unemployed HRST at the national level, by gender
  • Annual data on HRST and sub-groups of HRST at the regional level by age (NUTS 1)
  • Annual data on HRST and sub-groups of HRST at the regional level (NUTS 2)
  • Annual data on employed HRST at the regional level, by sector of activity (NUTS 1)
  • Annual data on HRST and sub-groups of HRST at the regional level by sex (NUTS 1)
  • Annual data on job-to-job mobility of highly qualified personnel (employed HRST) aged 25-64 at the national level, by age
  • Annual data on job-to-job mobility of highly qualified personnel (employed HRST) aged 25-64 at the national level, by gender
  • Annual data on employment in technology and knowledge-intensive sectors at the national level, by gender
  • Annual data on employment in technology and knowledge-intensive sectors at the regional level
  • Researchers by age and sex (HC) in Government and Higher education sector
  • Researchers by citizenship and sex (HC) in Government and Higher education sector
  • Total R&D personnel and Researchers as % of labour force and total employment
  • Total R&D personnel by sectors of performance (employment), occupation and sex
  • Total R&D personnel and researchers by sectors of performance (employment), qualification and sex
  • Total R&D personnel by sectors of performance (employment) and region
  • Total R&D personnel and researchers by sectors of performance (employment) and fields of science
  • R&D personnel and researchers (FTE) by size class in Business enterprise sector

It is important to point out that although these indicators are referred specifically to human resources in science and technology, there are also a number of other indicators that are important to understand the context. Macro indicators such as general labour market indicators (sectorial and occupational employment in particular for our study) and expenditure by Member States on R&D and education (as a proportion of GDP) are also used. There are also a number of ICT usage indicators that are particularly important in the context of our study such as the use of ICT´s among women with lower educational levels as this can indicate the extent to which barriers to employment due to IT illiteracy persist. In this case EUROSTAT has carried out in 2005 a Community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals which included information on usage by different personal characteristics including educational level. According to this survey 61% of persons with the lowest educational levels have no basic computer skills. Furthermore, this same survey points out that age is in fact one of the most important variables in explaining differences in computer and internet use in the EU25 . In fact the gap between younger women in men is almost non-existent whereas the differences among older age groups grow with age. The gaps between women and men by educational level at EU level are in fact larger for individuals with higher level education and these gaps widen as the educational level lowers, but these gaps are much smaller than those referring to age.
Finally, it is important to define the ICT sector using current classifications of sectors and occupations. According to the OECD, the economic activities considered within the ICT sector are shown in the following box using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC).

Manufacturing
3000 Office, accounting and computing machinery
3130 Insulated wire and cable
3210 Electronic valves and tubes and other electronic components
3220 Television and radio transmitters and apparatus for line telephony and line telegraphy
3230 Television and radio receivers, sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus, and associated goods
3312 Instruments and appliances for measuring, checking, testing, navigating and other purposes, except industrial process equipment
3313 Industrial process control equipment
Services
5150 Wholesaling of machinery, equipment and supplies
7123 Renting of office machinery and equipment (including computers)
6420 Telecommunications
72 Computer and related activities