Country report: Spain

1.4 JOB-TO JOB MOBILITY

The following graphs show the trends for this variable from 1999 to 2005 for the Euro area, EU25, EU15, and Spain, women and men separately.

The previous graphs show a positive trends for women in Spain in terms of job to job mobility. However, Spain has the highest rate of fixed term employment in the whole of the EU and it is almost 5 percentage points higher for women than for men. This means that, in principle, there are different factors driving the high mobility rates compared to the EU and that they result in very different outcomes in terms of conditions and pay as well as the impact on the overall economic performance. In the case of Spain, the high turnover and lack of job security can lead to a negative impact, especially in terms of productivity. However, the trend in the ICT sector might follow a different logic. Although no other readily available data can be used to investigate this point further, the analysis of the sample of women in ICT jobs taken in Spain for this project will shed some light on this issue.

Moreover, there also seems to be a correlation between the classification of welfare states and the levels of job mobility in the EU countries. At the high end of the job mobility scale are the social-democratic and liberal welfare state countries. Corporative regimes, such as Germany and France, score lower in job mobility. The countries of Southern Europe such as Portugal, Greece and Italy show higher work security but show the lowest overall job mobility rates. Spain is also included in this group, but is somewhat of an exception since it shows job mobility levels closer or above EU average not correspondent with its welfare state regime classification and in fact has one of the lowest geographical mobility rates in the EU. However, mobility in the ICT sector is particularly high for Spanish women.